This module discussed backbones and Network Access Points, components and function of the URL, domain levels, registration process.
- Describe backbones and Network Access Points.
- Identify the components and function of the URL.
- Explain domain levels
- Describe the registration process.
- Describe how protocols are used to send and receive information.
- Explain the differences between TCP/IP and UDP protocols.
- Explain how IP addresses are classified and what are remote and Web system protocols.
Backbones provide connectivity to other international backbones. The NAPs (network access points) are a key component of the Internet backbones. A NAP is a public network exchange facility where Internet service providers (ISPs) can connect with one another. The connection within NAPs determines how traffic is routed over the Internet and they are also the focus of Internet congestion. Local area networks (LANs) provide the standard user interface for computers to access the Internet. Phone lines (twisted pair), coaxial cables; microwaves, satellites, and other communications media are used to connect local area networks to the regional networks. TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol) is the common language of the Internet that allows the network systems to understand each other. TCP/IP divides network traffic into individually addressed packets that are routed over different paths. Protocols are conventions and rules that govern a data communications system.
They cover error detection, message length, and speed of transmission. Protocols provide compatibility among different manufacturers' devices.
The NSF and state governments have subsidized regional networks. NSFNET's acceptable use policy initially restricted the Internet to research and educational institutions; commercial use was not allowed. Due to increasing demand, additional backbones were allowed to connect to NSFNET and commercial applications began.
The World Wide Web (WWW or the Web) changed the Internet by introducing a true graphical environment. It has been around since 1989, proposed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN. WWW is an Internet service that organizes information using hypermedia
. Each document can include embedded reference to audio, images, full motion video, or other documents.
The WWW consists of a large portion of the Internet that contains hypermedia documents.
Hypermedia is an extension of hypertext. Hypertext allows a user to follow a desired path by clicking on highlighted text to follow a particular thread
or topic. This involves accessing files, applications, and computers in a nonsequential fashion. It allows for combinations of text, images, sounds, and full-motion video in the same document.
It allows information retrieval with the click of a button. Hypertext is an approach to data management in which data are stored in a network of nodes connected by links. The nodes are designed to be accessed through an interactive browsing system. A hypertext document includes document links and supporting indexes for a particular topic. A hypertext document may include data, audio, and images. This type of document is called hypermedia. In hypertext documents the physical and logical layouts are usually different. This is not the case in a paper document. In a paper document the author of the paper establishes the order and readers are instructed to follow the predetermined path.
In the next module, planning for an effective integration of network requirements will be discussed.
One classic example of hypermedia is the World Wide Web, which allows users to access multiple web locations. Another example is Microsoft Office, which allows clients to embed hypertext and hyperlinks into documents